Judicial Review Handbook 7th ed

Judicial Review Handbook 7th ed
Product ISBN: 9781509922833
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The new edition of this Handbook remains an indispensable source of reference and a guide to the case-law in judicial review. Established as an essential part of the library of any practitioner engaged in public law cases, if offers unrivalled coverage of administrative law, including, but not confined to, the work of the Administrative Court and its procedures. Once again completely revised and up-dated, the seventh edition approximates to a restatement of the law of judicial review, organised around 63 legal principles, each supported by a comprehensive presentation of the sources and an unequalled selection of reported case quotations. It also includes essential procedural rules, forms and guidance issued by the Administrative Court.

As in the previous edition, both the Civil Procedure Rules and Human Rights Act 1998 feature prominently as major influences on the shaping of the case-law. Attention is also given to impact of the Supreme Court. Here Michael Fordham casts an experienced eye over the Court's work in the area of judicial review, and assesses the signs from a Court that will be one of the key influences in the development of judicial review in the modern era.

The author, a leading member of the English public law bar, and now has been involved in many of the leading judicial review cases in recent years and is the founding editor of the Judicial Review journal.

 

Foreword by Lord Woolf vii
Preface xi

JUDICIAL REVIEW HANDBOOK: A DETAILED GUIDE TO THE LAW AND PRACTICE 1
A. THE NATURE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW: keys to understanding what the Court is doing 3
P1 A constitutional guarantee 5
1.1 Constitutional supervision of public authorities 5
1.2 Judicial review and the rule of law 8
1.3 Judicial review’s constitutional inalienability 13
P2 Supervisory jurisdiction 17
2.1 Judicial review in the Administrative Court 17
2.2 Upper Tribunal judicial review (UTJR) 26
2.3 Cart claims 30
2.4 Planning Court claims 32
2.5 Other similar supervisory jurisdictions 33
2.6 Impact of judicial review 34
P3 Procedural rigour & fl exibility 41
3.1 Procedural rigour 41
3.2 Procedural fl exibility 47
P4 Materiality 54
4.1 Highly likely: not substantially different (HL:NSD) 54
4.2 Materiality/absence of prejudice at common law 59
4.3 Futility 63
4.4 Cautious approach to materiality, prejudice and futility 65
4.5 Utility: hypothetical/academic issues 68
4.6 Prematurity 73
P5 Targets 77
5.1 Judicial review and ‘decisions’ 77
5.2 Spectrum of possible targets 78
5.3 Multiple targets/target-selection 82
5.4 ‘Rolling judicial review’ 84
P6 Sources 88
6.1 Basic sources of powers and duties 88
6.2 Policy guidance 91
6.3 International law 96

xiv
P7 Constitutional fundamentals 104
7.1 The force of the common law 104
7.2 The rule of law 108
7.3 Separation of powers 110
7.4 Legislative supremacy 111
7.5 Access to justice 115
7.6 Constitutional/common law rights 117
7.7 Basic fairness/natural justice 122
7.8 Basic reasonableness 124
P8 EU law 126
8.1 Basic features of EU law 126
P9 The HRA 130
9.1 HRA: key features and themes 130
9.2 HRA s.2: relationship with Strasbourg 135
9.3 HRA s.3: compatible interpretation 139
9.4 HRA s.6: compatible public authority action 142
9.5 HRA just satisfaction 146
P10 Candour & cooperation 149
10.1 Judicial review as a cooperative enterprise 149
10.2 ADR/mediation and judicial review 155
10.3 Claimant’s duty of candour 156
10.4 Defendant/interested party’s duty of candour 158
P11 Precedent & authority 165
11.1 Use of precedent and authority 165
P12 Reviewing primary legislation 173
12.1 Primary legislation: invalidity/disapplication under EU law 173
12.2 HRA s.4: declaration of incompatibility (DOI) 174
12.3 Judicial review of primary legislation at common law 177
P13 Judicial restraint 181
13.1 ‘Soft’ review: reasonableness standard 181
13.2 Restraint and factual appreciation 184
13.3 Restraint and discretion/judgment 185
13.4 Restraint and expertise 187
13.5 Judicial restraint in action 189
13.6 Review from the decision-maker’s point of view 194
P14 Critical balance 196
14.1 Judicial review: striking a balance 196
14.2 Striking a balance: nothing personal 200
14.3 Inconvenience and fl oodgates 201

xv
P15 The forbidden method 203
15.1 ‘Soft’ review: the forbidden substitutionary approach 203
15.2 ‘Not an appeal’ 205
15.3 ‘Legality not correctness’ 206
15.4 ‘Not the merits’ 207
15.5 ‘Court does not substitute its own judgment’ 208
P16 Hard-edged questions 209
16.1 Hard-edged review: correctness standard 209
16.2 Precedent fact/objective fact as hard-edged review 210
16.3 Error of law as hard-edged review 211
16.4 Interpretation as hard-edged review 213
16.5 Procedural fairness as hard-edged review 216
16.6 Hard-edged review: further aspects 218
P17 Evidence & fact 220
17.1 Judicial review evidence 220
17.2 Fresh evidence in judicial review 223
17.3 Judicial review and factual disputes 228
17.4 Oral evidence/cross-examination in judicial review 237
17.5 Disclosure/further information in judicial review 240
17.6 Expert evidence in judicial review 244
P18 Costs 247
18.1 Costs: general matters 247
18.2 Costs and third parties 255
18.3 Costs and the permission stage 260
18.4 Public interest costs, costs capping and the environment 263
18.5 Costs and discontinuance/settlement 267
P19 The claim stage 271
19.1 Pre-claim steps 271
19.2 Making the claim 275
19.3 Acknowledging the claim 280
P20 Interim relief 285
20.1 Interim remedies in judicial review 285
20.2 Court’s approach to interim relief 292
P21 The permission stage 297
21.1 The permission process 297
21.2 Granting or refusing permission 301
21.3 Totally without merit (TWM) certifi cation 306
21.4 Directing a rolled-up hearing 307
21.5 Permission-stage case-management/directions 310

xvi
P22 The substantive stage 317
22.1 Matters/steps arising post-permission 317
22.2 Third party participation 326
22.3 Substantive disposal without a hearing 333
22.4 The substantive hearing 335
P23 Appeal 342
23.1 Permission-stage appeal 342
23.2 Substantive appeal 346
23.3 Nature of the appellate court’s approach 349
P24 Remedies 357
24.1 The remedial toolkit 357
24.2 The declaration 358
24.3 Remedy as a discretionary matter 363
24.4 The remedies in action 368
P25 Monetary remedies 376
25.1 Availability of damages, restitution or sum due (debt) 376
25.2 Recognised species of monetary claim 379
25.3 Public law reparation: ‘no damages for maladministration’ 382

B. PARAMETERS OF JUDICIAL REVIEW:
further dominant themes shaping the law and practice 385
P26 Delay 387
26.1 The approach to delay 387
26.2 Promptness and the running of time 393
26.3 Extension of time 398
26.4 Hardship, prejudice and detriment 406
P27 Public/private law 409
27.1 The public law/private law distinction 409
27.2 ‘Public law’ principles outside judicial review 410
27.3 ‘Procedural exclusivity’: abuse of process 412
P28 Ouster 418
28.1 Statutory ouster of judicial review 418
28.2 Time-limit ousters 421
P29 Interpretation 423
29.1 The purposive approach to interpretation 423
29.2 Legislative purpose and judicial review 426
29.3 Statutory interpretation 427
29.4 Using Hansard in judicial review 433
29.5 Interpreting other instruments 436

xvii
P30 Function 440
30.1 The public authority’s function 440
P31 Context 444
31.1 ‘Context is everything’ 444
31.2 Circumstances 446
31.3 Conduct and characteristics of the claimant 449
31.4 ‘Flexi-principles’ 453
P32 Modifi ed review 456
32.1 Modifi ed review 456
32.2 Part-reviewability of Crown Courts 459
32.3 Judicial review of decisions regarding legal process 462
32.4 Anxious scrutiny 469
32.5 Systemic challenges 473
P33 Flux 477
33.1 The developing law 477
33.2 Landmarks from the past 479
33.3 ‘Two-step’ approaches to legal development 483
33.4 Next steps in public law: forecasting the future 484
P34 Reviewability/non-reviewability 486
34.1 Surveying the fi eld 486
34.2 Principles of reviewability 489
34.3 Key conquests of reviewability 493
34.4 ‘Non-reviewable’ public functions 495
34.5 Private law matters 501
P35 Principle of legality 507
35.1 POL: non-abrogation of protected values (the principle) 507
35.2 POL: protected values (the premise) 510
35.3 POL: international law (human rights) obligations 514
35.4 POL: Statutorily endorsed abrogation (the proviso) 515
P36 Alternative remedy 518
36.1 Judicial review alongside other safeguards 518
36.2 Exclusive alternative remedy 520
36.3 Alternative remedy as a discretionary bar 521
36.4 Whether action/avenue curative of public law wrong 533
P37 Proportionality method 538
37.1 Proportionality method 538
P38 Standing 544
38.1 The standing requirement: suffi cient interest 544
38.2 The approach to suffi cient interest 546

xviii
38.3 Standing at the permission/substantive stages 553
38.4 Standing and HRA s.6: the ‘victim’ test 555
P39 Discretion/duty 558
39.1 No unfettered powers 558
39.2 Discretion (power): the essential duties 560
39.3 Discretion and duty in action 563
P40 Inalienability 569
40.1 Preservation of powers and duties 569
40.2 Inalienability and legitimate expectation 570
P41 Legitimate expectation 574
41.1 The role of legitimate expectation 574
41.2 Anatomy of a legitimate expectation 578
P42 Onus 585
42.1 Onus generally on the claimant 585
42.2 Onus on the defendant 587
P43 Severance 591
43.1 Severability 591
P44 Nullity 594
44.1 Invalidity labels 594
44.2 Flaws constituting ‘nullity’ 595
44.3 Purpose/effect of ‘nullity’ 596
C. GROUNDS FOR JUDICIAL REVIEW:
public law wrongs justifying the Court’s intervention 599
P45 Classifying grounds 601
45.1 The conventional threefold division 601
45.2 Root concepts and unifying themes 603
45.3 Reviewing discretionary power: Wednesbury 605
45.4 Overlapping grounds and interchangeable labels 607
P46 Ultra vires 611
46.1 Ultra vires 611
46.2 Interpretation to allow validity: reading down/in 615
P47 Jurisdictional error 617
47.1 Jurisdictional error 617

xix
P48 Error of law 623
48.1 Error of law/misdirection in law/illegality 623
48.2 Error of law: restricted categories? 627
P49 Error of fact 629
49.1 Precedent fact 629
49.2 Objective question of fact 630
49.3 Material error of fact 631
49.4 Unsustainable conclusion of fact 635
P50 Abdication/fetter 639
50.1 Basic duty not to abdicate/fetter 639
50.2 Acting under dictation 640
50.3 Improper delegation 641
50.4 Fetter by infl exible policy 644
P51 Insuffi cient inquiry 649
51.1 Duty of suffi cient inquiry 649
51.2 Whether material fairly presented/properly addressed 652
P52 Bad faith/improper motive 655
52.1 Bad faith 655
52.2 Improper motive 656
P53 Frustrating the legislative purpose 659
53.1 Duty to promote the legislative purpose 659
P54 Substantive unfairness 663
54.1 Substantive unfairness 663
54.2 Unjustifi ed breach of a substantive legitimate expectation (SLE) 669
P55 Consistency/equal treatment 674
55.1 Consistency, equal treatment, certainty and arbitrariness 674
55.2 Statutory equality duties 682
55.3 Unjustifi ed ‘departure’ 687
P56 Relevancy/irrelevancy 692
56.1 The relevancy/irrelevancy principle 692
56.2 Obligatory and evaluative relevance/irrelevance 697
56.3 Relevance and weight 700
P57 Unreasonableness 704
57.1 The unreasonableness principle 704
57.2 Unreasonableness as a high threshold 708

xx
57.3 Distinct species of unreasonableness 710
57.4 Unreasonableness in action 713
P58 Proportionality 717
58.1 Proportionality 717
58.2 Proportionality alongside reasonableness 718
58.3 Proportionality at common law 720
58.4 Proportionality and scrutiny of evidence/reasoning 728
58.5 Proportionality: latitude and intensity of review 731
P59 HRA violation 738
59.1 Identifying an HRA violation 738
59.2 Article 2: life 740
59.3 Article 3: cruelty 741
59.4 Article 5: liberty 742
59.5 Article 6: fair hearing 743
59.6 Article 8: private and family life 747
59.7 Article 10: expression 749
59.8 Article 14: non-discrimination 750
59.9 A1P1: property-interference 754
59.10 Other HRA/ECHR rights and provisions 755
P60 Constitutionality 759
60.1 Constitutionality 759
P61 Procedural unfairness 763
61.1 Procedural fairness 763
61.2 Procedural fairness as a fl exi-principle 770
61.3 Procedural fairness: supplementing the legislative scheme 773
61.4 Procedural ultra vires 776
61.5 Basic right to be heard 778
61.6 Basic right to be informed 781
61.7 Other rights of procedural fairness 788
P62 Consultation 793
62.1 Consultation 793
62.2 Triggers for a consultation duty 795
62.3 Legally adequate consultation: the Sedley requirements 797
P63 Bias 802
63.1 Automatic disqualifi cation 802
63.2 Actual bias 803
63.3 Apparent bias 804
P64 Reasons 807
64.1 Importance of reasons 807
64.2 Judicial review for failure to give reasons 811

xxi
64.3 Adequacy of reasons 816
64.4 Timing of reasons: retro-reasons 823
64.5 Remedy for lack/insuffi ciency of reasons 828
P65 External vitiation 831
65.1 External injustice/vitiating third-party act 831
Also written by Mike Fordham 835
Table of Cases 837
Table of Legislation 925
Table of Statutory Instruments 929
Index 931